5 Things That Can Make Your Business Plan Fail — & How to Avoid Them

If you don't believe in your business, how can anybody else?

Creating a business plan is an essential step in getting a new company off the ground. Writing this document helps founders not only evaluate their goals, but also communicate them to other people, especially investors. A good business plan can be the difference between funding your dreams on business credit cards and personal savings or getting support from a financial institute or business partner. Unfortunately, many business plans fail in this aim. Understanding common pitfalls and how to avoid them ensures you get the backing you need to develop your business idea.

Here are 5 things that can make your business plain fail — and how to avoid them.

1. Failing to Define What Your Specialty Is

Thousands of startups and small businesses pitch their business plans, and it’s important to stand out in the crowd to improve your chances of securing an investment. An effective way to do this is by clearly defining what makes your company unique, according to the U.S. Small Business Administration. This requires being clear about what your company offers in terms of products, services, unique skill sets, and experience. For example, if you’re starting a new restaurant, do you cater to specific types of clients, or do you have a renowned chef in the kitchen? When you can identify a niche in which you excel, you improve your chances of success.

2. Omitting Vital Information

The process of writing a business plan is as important as the plan itself, according to SCORE, a nonprofit association that works in partnership with the SBA to provide free services and advice for entrepreneurs. Writing the plan encourages you to think about your business in a systematic way. The SBA recommends covering the following areas:

  • An executive summary to give an overview of your plan
  • A company description, including what makes your business unique
  • Market analysis to show you’ve researched the industry and your competitors
  • Details of your business and management structure
  • Details on what products and services you provide
  • Marketing and sales strategies
  • A funding request, with financial projections to support that request and an explanation of how these figures impact the business

3. Insufficient Understanding of Finances

Investors need to feel confident their money is in the hands of someone who understands the world of business and finance, and not just their particular line of work. If you don’t understand terms such as APR or lack a thorough grasp of sales figures, potential investors will balk no matter how good the business idea is. Solid business plans include significant research and budgeting and cover sales strategies, contingency plans for additional funding, and firm details on how much it costs to start the business and keep it running. Any funding requests need to be backed up with detailed financial projections to help investors understand the sources from which the return on investment will come, and a clear definition of how long that will take.

4. Failing to Maintain a Living Document

A business plan projects three to five years ahead and acts like a roadmap that defines a company’s growth and development. Creating the document is an important first step for a startup, but once the business is established, the plan becomes no less important. The plan can help generate extra funding, develop new business arrangements with other companies, take on high-level employees, or identify and rectify inefficiencies in your company structure.

That’s why it’s necessary to make changes to the plan by creating new goals or correcting mistakes. A truly valuable plan evolves along with the company, according to Harvard Business Review. Making changes when necessary keeps the plan alive and helps to drive the business forward.

5. Lack of Determination

If you want someone to invest in your idea, it’s important to invest in it, too. Giving up the first time a pitch falls on deaf ears doesn’t lead to new opportunities. If an investor refuses to get on board, it’s a good idea to ask them exactly why and then use that information to your advantage in a subsequent pitch. That kind of input can be invaluable to achieving your business goals.

Remember, most business credit cards require a personal guarantee, which can affect your personal credit. You can view two of your scores for free on Credit.com.

Image: Cecilie_Arcurs

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7 Essential Apps for Small Business Owners

Here are seven apps that can help entrepreneurs focus on running their business and less on the tools they’re using to do it

Chances are, if you ask a business owner or other entrepreneur what apps they rely on to help them stay on top of things you’ll get a response like this: “Apps? I don’t know. I’m too busy running a business to worry about apps” or “Hahahahaha! I’m not on top of things!”

Those are real responses from some highly entrepreneurial business owners to whom I posed the question. And, when you stop and think about it, their responses make sense. After all, most entrepreneurs aren’t going to mention that cup of coffee, their email or their phone as essentials to their daily work because they’re just so much a part of their day-to-day. Like oxygen or sunlight, you only really think about them when they’re suddenly unavailable.

The same holds true for genuinely helpful apps. They become fully ingrained into the user’s daily work and even personal lives. We looked across the spectrum at apps that help users communicate, organize their days, be more productive, keep their data and communications secure, and even help them learn.

The following are seven apps we think can truly help entrepreneurs focus more attention on running their business and less on the tools they’re using to do it.

1. KanbanFlow by CodeKick AB

Platforms: Android and iOS

Price: Free Basic version, $5/user/month Premium version

If you need to manage projects, KanbanFlow can help you do it. This web-based app lets users see the entire workflow, from assigning tasks to uploading documents and scheduling due dates. The Premium version allows for file attachments, revision history and even the ability to analyze your work history.

2. ColorNote by Social & Mobile

Platforms: Android, iOS and Windows

Price: Free

This app essentially functions like digital Post-It notes. It allows you to create text notes, checklists, to-do lists, etc., and you can check off items as you complete them. The notes can also be color-coded to keep them organized, and you can even name the color groups. The notes can be added to your calendar and even be shared.

3. Evernote

Platforms: Android and iOS

Price: Free with in-app purchase options

It’s like a notebook for your inner creative, allowing you to capture ideas based on pictures, drawings or writing, create project to-do lists around those ideas and also share them across devices and with others.

4. Duolingo

Platforms: Android, iOS and Windows

Price: Free

If you’re an entrepreneur who wants to take your business global (or at least into another country), learning a new language while trying to do it might seem daunting. But Duolingo aims to help you learn a new language in your down time, like on your commute, while exercising, or even while relaxing.

5. CamScanner by INTSIG

Platforms: Android and iOS

Price: Free with in-app purchase options

This app turns your device into a scanner and also allows you to access, edit and manage documents anytime, even on the go.

6. CM Security by Cheetah Mobile

Platforms: Android

Price: Free with in-app purchase options

This security app offers all kinds of nifty features, like AppLock, which stops intruders who try to unlock protected apps on your device and notifies you with the intruder’s photo.

7. Polaris Office

Platforms: Android and iOS

Price: Free Basic version, $3.99/month Smart version, $5.99/month Pro version

This app lets you create, edit and sync Microsoft Office files from your phone or device, and you won’t lose any of the formatting you worked diligently to create.

Small Business Financing 101

Of course, apps aren’t the only things that can help an entrepreneur successfully build and run their business. Having good credit can help tremendously, as well, since many lenders, including business credit card issuers, are going to pull a version of your traditional credit reports to see if they’re willing to extend financing for your business. (You can see how your credit is doing by viewing two of your credit scores, updated every 14 days, for free on Credit.com.)   

If your credit is just fine, there are plenty of solid business credit cards (see our picks here) available that can help you finance some of your business expenses. The Small Business Administration also offers several loan programs designed to help budding and operational entrepreneurs and there’s also conventional financing at your disposal that you can look into. 

Just remember to manage whatever financing you use responsibly, since many business lenders require a personal guarantee and will report a default to the major consumer credit reporting agencies. You can find tips for making sure a business loan doesn’t wreck your credit here.

Image: Geber86

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9 Essential Tax Tips for Entrepreneurs

For many entrepreneurs, there is no topic more fraught than taxes. In fact, a 2015 survey of small business owners found that 40% say dealing with bookkeeping and taxes is the worst part of owning a small business and that they spend 80+ hours a year dealing with taxes and working with their accountants. Taxes can be time-consuming, confusing, and a drain on your finances if you don’t prepare well. So whether you choose to do your taxes on your own or hire a professional, this guide can provide some sound advice and hopefully make tax time a little less taxing.

 

#1 Select the Right Entity for Your Business

 

One of the first decisions you’ll make when setting up your business is whether to function as a sole proprietor, partnership, LLC, or corporation. In her recent blog post, Wendy Connick, an IRS enrolled agent and owner of Connick Financial Solutions, says “the type of business entity you choose will have a huge effect both on how you pay taxes and how much tax you pay. It’s wise to consider the pros and cons of each business structure before making a final decision.”

Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is the simplest way to form a business, as it is not a legal entity. The business owner just needs to register the business name with the state and secure the proper local business licenses. The downside is that the sole proprietor is personally liable for the business’s debts.

Partnership

A partnership is similar to a sole proprietorship, but two or more people share ownership. Both partners contribute their money, labor, or skill to the business and share in its profits and losses.

Limited liability company (LLC)

An LLC provides more protection from liability than a sole proprietor or partnership but with the efficiency and flexibility of a partnership.

Corporation

A corporation is more complicated and usually recommended for larger companies with multiple employees. It is a legal entity owned by shareholders, so the corporation itself, not its shareholders, is legally liable for business debts.

Unlike other business entities, corporations pay income tax on their profits, so they are subject to “double taxation,” first on company profits and again on shareholder dividends.

To avoid double taxation, corporations can file an election with the IRS to be treated as an S Corporation. S Corporation income and losses “pass through” to the shareholder’s personal income tax return instead of being taxed at the corporate level.

Some small businesses and freelancers may save on self-employment taxes by registering as an S Corporation and paying themselves a salary. Sole proprietors, partners, and LLC members pay self-employment tax on their entire business net income, but S Corp shareholders only pay self-employment taxes on their wages. They can receive additional income from the corporation as a distribution, which is taxed at a lower rate.

Connick says “many small business owners start out as sole proprietors and adopt a different structure once the business gets big enough to make it worthwhile (which would typically be when the business is making over $50,000 a year).”

 

#2 Get an Employer Identification Number

 

All businesses, even sole proprietors should get an Employer Identification Number (EIN). Technically, sole proprietors can use their Social Security number (SSN) as the business’s identification number, but that means providing an SSN to any clients or vendors who need to issue a 1099, a move that can leave you more exposed to identity theft.

Applying for an EIN from the IRS is free and can usually be done in a matter of minutes using the IRS’s online form.

#3 Make Sure Your Business Isn’t Just a Hobby

 

You know you’re in business to make money, but would the IRS agree? If your company is operating at a loss, the IRS could reclassify your business as a hobby, resulting in some serious tax consequences.

A business is allowed to offset taxable income with business expenses, but hobby expenses cannot be netted against hobby income. Instead, they are deducted as miscellaneous itemized deductions on Schedule A and limited to the amount of hobby income reported on Schedule C. This means a hobby business can never result in a net loss, and you may be prevented from deducting hobby expenses entirely if you don’t itemize deductions.

If you’ve been making money in your business for a while and just have one bad year, you don’t have to worry about the IRS reclassifying your business as a hobby. If you’ve been losing money for a while and especially if your business involves some element of personal pleasure or recreation (such as horse racing, filmmaking, or restoring old cars), you’ll want to make sure you’re treating your business like a business in case the IRS challenges your losses.

The IRS takes several factors into consideration:

  • Does the amount of time you put into the business suggest an intention of making a profit? Side projects are more likely to face scrutiny because you’re spending the majority of your time at another full-time job.
  • Do you depend on the income you receive from the business?
  • Were any losses beyond your control or occur in the startup phase? Losses due to poor management and overspending are less likely to hold up under examination.
  • Have you changed operation methods to improve profitability? Many business experience setbacks. If you learn from mistakes and try to correct your course, the IRS is more likely to agree that you have the intention of running a profitable business.
  • Do you have the knowledge and experience necessary to be successful in your field?

If you are concerned about an IRS challenge of your losses, there are a few steps you can take to treat your activity as a business:

  • Keep thorough business books and records.
  • Maintain separate business checking and credit accounts.
  • Obtain the proper business licenses, insurance, and certifications.
  • Develop and maintain a written business plan.
  • Document the hours spent working on your business, especially if it is a side project.

 

#4 Track Income and Expenses Carefully

 

Maintaining separate business checking and credit card accounts is not only a good way to demonstrate that your business is not a hobby, but it’s also an excellent way to simplify tracking business income and expenses.

Benjamin Sullivan, an IRS enrolled agent and a certified financial planner with Palisades Hudson Financial Group LLC in its Austin, Texas, office, says “small business owners can get a tax benefit from almost anything that is an ordinary and necessary business expense. Travel, meals, advertising, and insurance costs are just some of the popular deductions.”

Use small business bookkeeping software

Small business accounting software like FreshBooks, Xero, or QuickBooks Online can help you easily and quickly track your business revenues and expenses. They can usually be set up to import transactions from your business checking account automatically and let you snap pictures of receipts with your phone.

Whether you choose to use a software program or just a spreadsheet, establish a system for organizing records and receipts right from the beginning. “Little expenses can add up quite a bit over the course of a year,” Connick says, “but you can’t deduct them if you don’t know what they are.”

Special rules for travel, meals, and entertainment

It is especially crucial to maintain good records for business travel, meals, and entertainment expenses. The IRS allows taxpayers to deduct 100% of their business-related travel and 50% of the cost of business meals and entertainment expenses, whether you are taking a client out for a meal or traveling out of town. Because these categories are prone to abuse, the IRS requires documentation to substantiate that these expenses have a legitimate business purpose.

For meals and entertainment, in addition to a receipt that shows the amount, time, and place, taxpayers should also make a note of the individuals being entertained and the business purpose. Meeting this requirement can be as simple as jotting down a note on your receipt or in your calendar regarding who you dined with and the business matters discussed.

For travel expenses, hotel receipts must include a breakdown of the charges for lodging, meals, telephone, and other incidentals. Your hotel should be able to provide an itemized receipt at checkout.

Save cash instead of taxes

One trap that small business owners often fall into is spending money to save on taxes. At year end, many entrepreneurs look at business profits and think they need to spend their cash to avoid a big tax bill. Don’t spend a dollar to save forty cents in tax. If you truly need a new computer, extra supplies, or a new vehicle, buy it. Don’t spend money just to avoid a tax bill. Remember, taxes are a cost of doing business. If you’re paying taxes, you’re making money.

#5 Set Aside Money for Taxes

 

When you set up a separate business checking account, it’s also a good idea to set up a separate savings account to help you organize funds and set aside money for taxes.

Our tax system is a “pay as you go” system. When you receive a paycheck from an employer, money is regularly withheld on your behalf. When you are self-employed, making estimated tax payments is your responsibility. If you don’t pay in enough during the year to cover your income tax and self-employment tax, you may have to pay an underpayment penalty.

Estimated tax payments are due on the 15th day of April, June, September, and the following January. You have a few options for calculating what you owe each quarter:

Use Form 1040ES

This form includes a worksheet to help you estimate how much you owe for the current year. (Corporations use Form 1120-W to calculate estimated taxes.)

Look at last year’s return

If you’ve been in business for a while and there are no significant changes this year, you can aim to pay 100% of last year’s tax as a safe-harbor estimate (110% if your adjusted gross income for the prior year was more than $150,000).

Make a quarterly estimate

If your income fluctuates, you may prefer to make a quarterly calculation. Calculating estimated payments is complex. It depends on your tax bracket, deductions, credits, etc. In this case, it’s best to work with a tax professional who can consider all of the factors and recent changes in the tax law.

Sullivan says, “Tax planning isn’t a one-time exercise that should be done at the end of the year or at tax time. Instead, tax planning is an ongoing process of structuring your affairs in a tax-efficient manner.”

#6 Don’t Forget to Track Your Mileage

 

When you drive your personal vehicle for business, you have two options for deducting business automobile expenses: the standard mileage rate or actual expenses.

The IRS releases the standard mileage rate annually. The rate is $0.54 per mile for 2016. It goes down to $0.535 cents per mile for 2017. You simply multiply the standard mileage rate by the number of miles you drove for business during the year.

To use the actual expense method, total up all of the costs of operating your vehicle for the year, including insurance, repairs, oil, and gas, and multiply them by the percentage of business use. For example, if you drove 10,000 miles during the year and 5,000 of those miles were for business, your percentage of business use would be 50%. If it cost $7,000 to own and operate your vehicle, your deduction using the actual expense method would be $3,500 ($7,000 x 50%).

You can use whichever method gives you the largest deduction. However, if you want to use the standard mileage rate, you must choose it in the first year the car is used for business. In subsequent years, you can choose either method.

Whichever method you choose, you must track your business miles. You can do that with a paper log kept in your glove compartment or with an app such as MileIQ or TrackMyDrive. “Note that ‘business purpose’ is a pretty broad category,” Connick says. “If you drive to the supermarket and pick up some pens for your home office while buying groceries, the trip counts as business mileage.”

 

#7 Consider the Home Office Deduction

 

Some business owners avoid claiming the home office deduction, believing it to be an audit trigger. That may have been true in the past, but today’s technology has made home offices much more common. Connick suggests entrepreneurs shouldn’t fear the home office deduction if they meet the requirements. “It’s no longer audit bait,” she says, “especially if you use the safe harbor method to calculate your deduction.”

To take advantage of the home office deduction, you must use the area exclusively and regularly, either as your principal place of business or as a setting to meet with clients. The home office deduction is based on the percentage of your home used for the business. You can choose either the traditional method or the simplified method for deducting expenses.

Under the traditional method, you’ll calculate the percentage of your home that is used for business by dividing the square footage of your office by the square footage of your entire home. For example, if your home is 1,500 square feet and your office occupies 150 square feet, the business percentage is 10%. Then, you can deduct 10% of all of the expenses of owning and maintaining your home, including mortgage interest, real estate taxes, utilities, association dues, insurance, repairs, etc.

Under the simplified method, you’ll take a deduction of $5 per square foot, with a maximum of 300 square feet. So if your home office measures 150 square feet, the home office deduction would be $750 (150 x $5).

 

#8 Save for Retirement

 

For most self-employed people, the simplest option for retirement saving is an individual retirement account (IRA). Anyone can contribute to a traditional IRA, but with an annual contribution limit of just $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older), you may want a retirement savings option that allows you to save more.

Connick says her number one tip for entrepreneurs is to open a SEP-IRA. “These retirement accounts are cheap to open and maintain,” she says. They also “have a high contribution limit, and contributions are fully tax deductible.” SEP-IRAs allow entrepreneurs to contribute up to 25% of their net earnings from self-employment, up to a maximum of $53,000 for 2016.

The deadline to contribute to a SEP-IRA is the due date of your return, including extensions. So 2016 contributions can be made until April 18, 2017, or October 15, 2017, if an extension is filed.

 

#9 Get Help from a Professional

 

Connick recommends that entrepreneurs hire a professional to do their taxes. “If you pick someone who knows their stuff,” she says, “you will likely save more than enough off your tax bill to pay for their fees. For that matter, tax preparation fees are deductible!”

When choosing a tax professional, look for someone with experience working with self-employed taxpayers. The IRS maintains an online directory of return preparers who have additional credentials, such as EAs, attorneys, and CPAs. Search the directory to find a professional near you with the credentials or qualifications you prefer.

If there is one thing all entrepreneurs can agree on, it’s that everybody dreads tax season. Having a basic understanding of tax law, maintaining organized records throughout the year, and working with a professional can help you make the most of this least wonderful time of the year.

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